This was designed by Kisho Kurokawa, famous architect in Japan, in 1960s and he intended to express his and his group's idea, "Metabolism on architecture". The idea is that the architecture is not just the machine but the organism that will continue to grow through metabolism, like real living organism. Tokyo is indeed scrap-and-built city so this idea came out in Japan.
The building consists of many unit and each unit can be replaceable.
But, unfortunately, this building is dying because of many damage on roof, water service. Too much money and too much skills will be needed to repair the damage and the inhabitant decided to break down this building.
The technique seemed to catch up with the idea...